- Bonsai Tree Care Workshop
- Bonsai Basics
- 3 editions of this work
- Bonsai Basics | Trees | Bonsai
- Bonsai tree species you can start with
Expensive copper wire was only used for trees that had real potential. These were called Shinto new crossing or arrival or Shin-watare. These were made for increasing numbers of enthusiasts. Some containers, including primitive style ones, were also being made in Formosa.
By , "at the N. The exhibits of potted plants and dwarf trees held here from time to time attract lovers of such things. The shaped trees now shared space with other items such as scrolls, incense burners , Buddhist statues and tea ceremony implements. The first issue of Bonsai magazine was published in by Norio Kobayashi — This influential periodical would run for consecutive issues. Copper wire was being extensively used by this time.
Major changes to a tree's shape could now be accomplished with wiring. Trees could be precisely and aesthetically wired, and then sold immediately.
Bonsai Tree Care Workshop
A greater number of both collected and nursery trees could now be trained for bonsai. The number of hobbyists increased due to the increased ability to style with wire, but there was also an increase in damaged or scarred trees. The Great Kanto Earthquake and resulting fire devastated Tokyo, and gutted the downtown area where many bonsai were grown. Toolsmith Masakuni I — helped design and produce the first steel tools specifically made for the developing requirements of bonsai styling.
By , there were about bonsai dealers in Tokyo, some species of trees were being cultivated, and thousands of specimens annually were shipped to Europe and America. Caretaker of the Imperial bonsai collection, Kyuzo Murata — , was one of very few persons allowed to take care of bonsai during the Pacific War.
He gathered together and preserved many trees from the other Omiya growers and would water them under the protection of night.
Throughout , many old trees were the smallest casualties of the spring and summer napalm bombing of Tokyo esp. Many of the Omiya growers did not continue their vocation. During the Allied Occupation of Japan through U. Many of the older and limited varieties of trees were no longer available, and the bonsai considered in fashion changed partly because of this shortage.
Copper wire now largely replaced ordinary iron wire for shaping the better trees, but the latter still would be used for mass-produced commercial bonsai. Following World War II, a number of trends made the Japanese tradition of bonsai more and more accessible to Western and world audiences. One key trend was the increase in the number, scope, and prominence of bonsai exhibitions. For example, the Kokufu-ten bonsai displays reappeared in after a four-year cancellation and became annual affairs.
The displays are by invitation only for eight days in February, and continue to this day. The largest both in quantity and quality of exhibitions are held in Japan. Another key trend was the increase in books on bonsai and related arts, now being published in English and other languages for audiences outside Japan. In , Yuji Yoshimura , son of a leader in the Japanese bonsai community, collaborated with German diplomat and author Alfred Koehn to give demonstrations and the first formal bonsai courses opened to the public and outsiders in Tokyo.
Koehn had been an enthusiast before the war, and his book Japanese Tray Landscapes had been published in English in Peking.
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This book described tray landscapes made with younger material than was traditionally used in bonsai, providing an alternative to the use of large, older plants, few of which had escaped war damage. Other works in Japanese and English had been published by this time, and afterward a tremendous number of books saw print.
Translations and original volumes in over two dozen languages were published in the next few decades. A third trend was the increasing availability of expert bonsai training, at first only in Japan and then more widely. Returning to the U. Other groups and individuals from outside Asia then visited and studied at the various Japanese nurseries, occasionally even apprenticing under the masters.
These visitors brought back to their local clubs the latest techniques and styles, which were then further disseminated. Japanese teachers also traveled widely, bringing hands-on bonsai expertise to all six continents. By the beginning of the s, these trends were beginning to merge.
A large display of bonsai and suiseki was held as part of Expo '70 , and formal discussion was made of an international association of enthusiasts. In , first Gafu-ten Elegant-Style Exhibit of shohin bonsai cm 9. So was the first Sakufu-ten Creative Bonsai Exhibit , the only event in which professional bonsai growers exhibit traditional trees under their own names rather than under the name of the owner. These conventions attracted several hundreds of participants from dozens of countries and have since been held every four years at different locations around the globe: , Orlando, Florida ; , Seoul, Korea ; , Munich, Germany ; , Washington, D.
3 editions of this work
The final trend supporting world involvement in bonsai is the widening availability of specialized bonsai plant stock, soil components, tools, pots, and other accessory items. Bonsai nurseries in Japan advertise and ship specimen bonsai world-wide. Most countries have local nurseries providing plant stock as well, although finding specimen bonsai is more difficult outside Japan and bonsai enthusiasts will often start with local trees that have not been pre-shaped into candidate bonsai.
Japanese bonsai soil components, such as Akadama clay, are available worldwide, and local suppliers also provide similar materials in many locations.
Bonsai Basics | Trees | Bonsai
Specialized bonsai tools are widely available from Japanese and Chinese sources. Potters around the globe provide material to hobbyists and specialists in many countries. Bonsai has now definitively reached a world-wide audience.
There are over twelve hundred books on bonsai and the related arts in at least twenty-six languages available in over ninety countries and territories. Main article: Bonsai cultivation and care Bonsai cultivation and care requires techniques and tools that are specialized to support the growth and long-term maintenance of trees in small containers. All bonsai start with a specimen of source material, a plant that the grower wishes to train into bonsai form. Bonsai practice is an unusual form of plant cultivation in that growth from seeds is rarely used to obtain source material.
To display the characteristic aged appearance of a bonsai within a reasonable time, the source plant is often mature or at least partially grown when the bonsai creator begins work. Sources of bonsai material include:.
Bonsai tree species you can start with
The practice of bonsai development incorporates a number of techniques either unique to bonsai or, if used in other forms of cultivation, applied in unusual ways that are particularly suitable to the bonsai domain. These techniques include:. Small trees grown in containers, like bonsai, require specialized care. Unlike houseplants and other subjects of container gardening, tree species in the wild , in general, grow roots up to several meters long and root structures encompassing several thousand liters of soil. In contrast, a typical bonsai container is under 25 centimeters in its largest dimension and 2 to 10 liters in volume.
Branch and leaf or needle growth in trees is also large-scale in nature. Wild trees typically grow 5 meters or taller when mature, whereas the largest bonsai rarely exceed 1 meter and most specimens are significantly smaller. These size differences affect maturation, transpiration, nutrition, pest resistance, and many other aspects of tree biology.
Maintaining the long-term health of a tree in a container requires some specialized care techniques:. Main article: Bonsai aesthetics Bonsai aesthetics are the aesthetic goals characterizing the Japanese tradition of growing an artistically-shaped miniature tree in a container. Many Japanese cultural characteristics, in particular the influence of Zen Buddhism and the expression of Wabi-sabi , [81 ] inform the bonsai tradition in Japan.
Established art forms that share some aesthetic principles with bonsai include penjing and saikei. A number of other cultures around the globe have adopted the Japanese aesthetic approach to bonsai, and, while some variations have begun to appear, most hew closely to the rules and design philosophies of the Japanese tradition. Over centuries of practice, the Japanese bonsai aesthetic has encoded some important techniques and design guidelines.
Like the aesthetic rules that govern, for example, Western common practice period music, bonsai's guidelines help practitioners work within an established tradition with some assurance of success. Simply following the guidelines alone will not guarantee a successful result. Nevertheless, these design rules can rarely be broken without reducing the impact of the bonsai specimen.
Some key principles in bonsai aesthetics include:.