- Oxford Dictionary of Biology - Wikipedia
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Cortex forms layer of cells that constitute cork. It is responsible for the transportation of materials into the central cylinder of the root through diffusion and may also be used for food storage in the form of starch. Oxford University Press.
Zoology [note 1] is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. His Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology. The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of zoology as a single coherent field arose much later, the zoological sciences emerged from natural history reaching back to the biological works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world.
This ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Albertus Magnus. In biology, homeostasis is the state of steady internal physical and chemical conditions maintained by living systems.
Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity. Each of these variables is controlled by one or more regulators or homeostatic mechanisms, which together maintain life. Homeostasis is brought about by a natural resistance to change when already in the optimal conditions, and equilibrium is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms.
All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components for the variable being regulated: a receptor, a control. A lamella plural: "lamellae" in biology refers to a thin layer, membrane, or plate of tissue. Any thin layer of organic tissue can be called a lamella and there is a wide array of functions an individual layer can serve.
For example, an intercellular lipid lamella is formed when lamellar disks fuse together to form a lamellar sheet. It is believed that these disks are formed from vesicles, giving the lamellar sheet a lipid bilayer that plays a role in water diffusion. Thylakoid membranes are actually a system of lamellar membranes working together, and are differentiated into different lamellar domains.
This lamellar system allows plants to convert sunlight into energy. The basic unit of the membrane system is a flattened single vesicle calle. Dicyema, a small parasite typically described as "vermiform" Vermiform describes something shaped like a worm. The expression is often employed in biology and anatomy to describe more or less tubular or cylindrical, usually soft body parts or animals. The word root is Latin, vermes-worms and formes-shaped. The more well known one are undoubtedly the annelids earthworm and relatives and the roundworms a very common, mainly parasitic group , but a number of less well known phyla answer to the same description.
Examples range from the minute parasitic mesozoans to the larger bodied free-living phyla like ribbon worms, peanut worms and priapulids. References Glare, edited by P. Oxford Latin Dictionary Combined ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Mycoprotein is a form of single-cell protein, also known as fungal protein, that is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "Protein derived from fungi, especially as produced for human consumption.
Concerns for pathogen-potential of the species on plants led to a twelve-year testing process. After this period F. Girl power sometimes spelled grrrl power is a slogan that encourages and celebrates women's empowerment, independence, confidence and strength. Ironically, the zine first coined the "girl power" slogan, later co-opted by England's bubblegum pop band the Spice Girls. Bikini Kill earned a reputation in the punk underground for conf. Pinocytosis In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.
These pinocytotic vesicles subsequently fuse with endosomes to hydrolyze break down the particles.
Oxford Dictionary of Biology - Wikipedia
This process requires energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP , the chemical compound mostly used as energy in the majority of animal cells. Pinocytosis is further segregated into the pathways macropinocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolin-mediated endocytosis, or clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis, all of which differ by the mechanism of vesicle formation as well as the resulting size of these vesicles Conner and Schmid, Pinocytosis is variably subdivided into categories depending on molecular mechanism and the fate of the.
The initial stages of human embryogenesis Parts of a human embryo Ontogeny also ontogenesis or morphogenesis is the origination and development of an organism both physical and psychological, e. Ontogeny is the developmental history of an organism within its own lifetime, as distinct from phylogeny, which refers to the evolutionary history of a species.
In practice, writers on evolution often speak of species as "developing" traits or characteristics. This can be misleading. While developmental i. Ontogeny, embryology and developmental biology are closely related s. Is it material composition, or organization of parts, that creates the mutual symbiosis between Amphiprion clownfish and tropical sea anemones? Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and, by analogy or literally, as living organisms.
Organicism flourished for a period during the era of German romanticism during which time the new science of biology was first defined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
Oxford Dictionary of Biology (Oxford Quick Reference)
Within modern-day biological sciences organicism is the approach that stresses the organization particularly the self-organizing properties , rather than the composition, of. Look up torpor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate. Torpor enables animals to survive periods of reduced food availability.
Animals that undergo daily torpor include birds even tiny hummingbirds, notably Cypselomorphae  and some mammals, including many marsupial species, rodent species such as mice , and bats. Torpor is often used to help animals survive during periods of colder temperatures, as it allows them to save the energy th. Jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy, passerine birds in the crow family, Corvidae.
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The names jay and magpie are somewhat interchangeable, and the evolutionary relationships are rather complex. For example, the Eurasian magpie seems more closely related to the Eurasian jay than to the East Asian blue and green magpies, whereas the blue jay is not closely related to either. Systematics and species Jays are not a monophyletic group. Anatomical and molecular evidence indicates they can be divided into an American and an Old World lineage the latter including the ground jays and the piapiac , while the gray jays of the genus Perisoreus form a group of their own.
The crested jay Platylophus galericulatus is traditionally placed here, but its placement remains unresolved; it does not seem to be a corvid at all. Historia animalium, one of Aristotle's books on biology. Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science. Many of his observations were made during his stay on the island of Lesbos, including especially his descriptions of the marine biology of the Pyrrha lagoon, now the Gulf of Kalloni.
His theory is based on his concept of form, which derives from but is markedly unlike Plato's theory of Forms. The theory describes five major biological processes, namely metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryogenesis, and inheritance. Each was defined in some detail, in some cases sufficient to enable modern biologists to create mathematical models of the mechanisms described. Aristotle's method, too, resembled the style of science used by mod.
Northern bat hibernating in Norway Bats hibernating in a silver mine Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate.
It is most commonly observed during the winter months. Although traditionally reserved for "deep" hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic suppression rather than any absolute decline in body temperature. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum and utilize similar mechanisms.