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There is another more obvious difference from The whole of the warring nations are engaged, not only soldiers, but the entire population, men, women and children. The fronts are everywhere to be seen. The trenches are dug in the towns and streets. Every village is fortified. Every road is barred. The front line runs through the factories. The workmen are soldiers with different weapons but the same courage.
Not only were men conscripted into the armed forces from the beginning of the war something which had not happened until the middle of World War I , but women were also conscripted as Land Girls to aid farmers and the Bevin Boys were conscripted to work down the coal mines. Enormous casualties were expected in bombing raids, so children were evacuated from London and other cities en masse to the countryside for compulsory billeting in households.
In the long term this was one of the most profound and longer-lasting social consequences of the whole war for Britain.
The use of statistical analysis, by a branch of science which has become known as Operational Research to influence military tactics was a departure from anything previously attempted. In contrast, Germany started the war under the concept of Blitzkrieg. Officially, it did not accept that it was in a total war until Joseph Goebbels ' Sportpalast speech of 18 February If necessary, do you want a war more total and radical than anything that we can even imagine today? The commitment to the doctrine of the short war was a continuing handicap for the Germans; neither plans nor state of mind were adjusted to the idea of a long war until the failure of the Operation Barbarossa.
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Under Speer's direction a threefold increase in armament production occurred and did not reach its peak until late Plant and machinery were plentiful and incompletely used, thus it was comparatively easy to substitute unused or partly used machinery for that which was destroyed. The Soviet Union USSR was a command economy which already had an economic and legal system allowing the economy and society to be redirected into fighting a total war.
It was the largest theatre of war in history in terms of numbers of soldiers, equipment and casualties and was notorious for its unprecedented ferocity, destruction, and immense loss of life see World War II casualties.
The fighting involved millions of German , Hungarian, Romanian and Soviet troops along a broad front hundreds of kilometres long. It was by far the deadliest single theatre of World War II. Scholars now believe that at most 27 million Soviet citizens died during the war, including at least 8. Millions of civilians died from starvation , exposure, atrocities, and massacres.
During the Battle of Stalingrad , newly built T tanks were driven—unpainted because of a paint shortage—from the factory floor straight to the front. The United States underwent an unprecedented mobilization of national resources for the Second World War. The strategists of the U. Following the outbreak of war in Europe and the ongoing aggression in Asia, efforts were stepped up significantly. American public opinion was still opposed to involvement in the problems of Europe and Asia, however.
Collaboration and Resistance in Napoleonic Europe
In late , Japan's Army -dominated government decided to seize by military force the strategic resources of South-East Asia and Indonesia since the Western powers would not give Japan these goods by trade. And it's the girl that makes the thing that holds the oil that oils the ring that works the thing-ummy-bob that's going to win the war. As the United States began to gear up for a major war, information and propaganda efforts were set in motion.
Previously untouched sections of the nation mobilized for the war effort. By the war's end a multitude of advances had been made in medicine, physics, engineering, and the other sciences. In the war, the United States lost , military personnel, but had managed to avoid the extensive level of damage to civilian and industrial infrastructure that other participants suffered.
The U. It is now none of these things. Roosevelt declared at Casablanca conference to the other Allies and the press that unconditional surrender was the objective of the war against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The unconditional surrender of the major Axis powers caused a legal problem at the post-war Nuremberg Trials , because the trials appeared to be in conflict with Articles 63 and 64 of the Geneva Convention of Since the end of World War II, no industrial nation has fought such a large, decisive war.
Script error Such weapons are developed and maintained with relatively modest peacetime defense budgets. By the end of the s, the ideological stand-off of the Cold War between the Western World and the Soviet Union had resulted in thousands of nuclear weapons being aimed by each side at the other. During the Cold War, the two superpowers sought to avoid open conflict between their respective forces, as both sides recognized that such a clash could very easily escalate, and quickly involve nuclear weapons.
In the case of proxy wars, each superpower supported its respective allies in conflicts with forces aligned with the other superpower, such as in the Vietnam War and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. During the Yugoslav Wars , NATO conducted strikes against the electrical grid in enemy territory using graphite bombs. Some observers considered this to be an act of total war, owing to the fact that powerplants supported by the electrical grid were essential to water purification and thus the strike represented a direct attack on civilian resources.
NATO claimed that the objective of their strikes was to disrupt military infrastructure and communications. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. For other uses, see Total war disambiguation. Contents [ show ]. As an aggressor nation, the ancient Mongols, no less than the modern Nazis , practiced total war against an enemy by organizing all available resources, including military personnel , noncombatant workers , intelligence , transport , money , and provisions.
Collaboration and Resistance in Napoleonic Europe | SpringerLink
From this moment until such time as its enemies shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the services of the armies. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions ; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn old lint into linen; the old men shall betake themselves to the public squares in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.
Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels , 18 February , in his Sportpalast speech. German Historical Institute. August 22, Clausewitz in the twenty-first century. Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press. However, If you are not familiar with the history, you would more than likely give it a five as the writing would keep the novice engaged. Apr 10, Captain Sir Roddy, R. This is an excellent, and eminently readable, political and military history of the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars from the Russian perspective.
Professor Lieven has done a superb job of crafting a suspenseful story involving some truly remarkable characters. His description of the battlefield tactical situations, the strategic implications of the armies moving across Europe in pursuit of Napoleon's Grande Armee is some of the best I've read, and rivals Shelby Foote's treatment of the Amer This is an excellent, and eminently readable, political and military history of the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars from the Russian perspective.
His description of the battlefield tactical situations, the strategic implications of the armies moving across Europe in pursuit of Napoleon's Grande Armee is some of the best I've read, and rivals Shelby Foote's treatment of the American Civil War. What really made this book stand out for me was Lieven's extensive and fascinating portrayal of the diplomatic and political machinations that led to the Allies finally coming together under the common goal of utterly destroying Napoleon's ability to wage war in Europe. For far too long too many people have been under the mistaken impression that it was the British, and the British alone, that led to the defeat of Napoleon.
While it is true, in one sense, in another sense Napoleon's final defeat could not have occurred without the dogged perseverance of Tsar Alexander and the truly superb Russian Army that he led to ultimate victory on the long road from Moscow to Paris between and I highly recommend this to any interested in 19th Century European history, and especially to those interested in Napoleonic history.
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This is an indispensable resource, and ever so well written. Oct 02, Ed rated it it was amazing. I found this in my local bookstore Nicola's and was immediately taken because it turned over most of what I thought I knew about Napoleon's campaign in Russia. Namely that he was defeated by his own over reach and the Russian winter. This book makes the case that he was beaten by superior strategy, fighting forces and tactics, though no doubt winter and over-reach helped. And I had forgotten that the Russians actually pursued the French all the way back to Paris and were part of the allied group I found this in my local bookstore Nicola's and was immediately taken because it turned over most of what I thought I knew about Napoleon's campaign in Russia.
And I had forgotten that the Russians actually pursued the French all the way back to Paris and were part of the allied group that occupied it. An echo of the end game in Berlin. I am a pages in and it is really well researched and gripping More when I have finished Dec 12, William Shieber rated it it was amazing. Sometimes reality beats fiction. In this case, the reality is that Alexander I knew what he was doing.
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In , Russia defeated Napoleon's invasion not merely because of the tenacity of the Russian spirit or because it's cold in winter, but because Alexander and Barclay de Tolly had prepared for the invasion. Thereafter, Alexander nurtured a military coalition with Prussia and Austria which combined to drive Napoleon out of Germany, Within two years of the invasion of Russia, the Coalition army Sometimes reality beats fiction. Thereafter, Alexander nurtured a military coalition with Prussia and Austria which combined to drive Napoleon out of Germany, Within two years of the invasion of Russia, the Coalition army marched into Paris, with Alexander at its head.